Portraits naturalisés de la catastrophe : « The Storm » et « The Calm » de John Donne

Edmund Gosse, dans la biographie en deux volumes qu’il consacre à John Donne en 1899, écrit au sujet des deux épîtres « The Storm » et « The Calm » qu’elles répondent, à l’instar des Satires, à un instinct descriptif caractérisé qu’il déplore: « they are exercises in deliberate description », « These were attempts […] to paint what the poet saw or thought he saw. » De nombreux autres lecteurs et critiques de Donne ont noté, sans toutefois reprendre à leur compte le mépris de Gosse pour ces vers, le réalisme de la représentation de la tempête et du calme qui lui succède: « Donne’s verse letters, the Storm and Calm, have often been praised as the best Elizabethan descriptive poems. They show a realism that cuts through the idealized tableaux of most later sixteenth-century word pictures » (Nellist, 511).

Les deux tableaux de Donne ont pour modèle avoué l’art de Nicholas Hilliard, cité nommément dès les premiers vers de « The Storm »:

Thou which art I, (’tis nothing to be so)
Thou which art still thyself, by these shalt know
Part of our passage; and, a hand, or eye
By Hilliard drawn, is worth an history,
By a worse painter made; and (without pride)
When by thy judgement they are dignified,
My lines are such: ’tis the pre-eminence
Of friendship only to impute excellence.

La référence a de quoi surprendre: si l’on connaît les portraits ou le travail d’orfèvre du miniaturiste, la nature et ses catastrophes n’ont jamais constitué pour lui un objet pictural. Pourquoi Donne convoque-t-il un portraitiste en ouverture d’un récit de tempête en mer?  Qu’y-a-t-il de commun entre les « lignes » du poète et celles de Hilliard?

Notre problématique est double: elle vise tout d’abord à s’interroger sur la spécificité du travail d’Hilliard dans l’Angleterre élisabéthaine et du modèle de représentation qu’il pouvait évoquer à John Donne, ainsi qu’à Christopher Brooke (le destinataire de ces deux lettres) et au cercle d’amis plus vaste dans lequel ces poèmes étaient lus. L’enquête sur les modalités et la matérialité de l’art du limner permettra de relire, dans un deuxième temps, les épîtres de Donne à l’aune de ce qui pourrait être désigné comme un nouveau réalisme ou naturalisme (terme que l’on rapprochera de l’idée d’une peinture du vivant, sans y associer les mêmes connotations sociales dont il se colore au XIXe siècle). La tempête en mer, motif spirituel par excellence, n’est, en effet, que très rarement décrite ou vécue comme un phénomène naturel en cette fin de XVIe siècle – elle est toujours, avant tout, expérience emblématique et manifestation surnaturelle, si bien qu’elle interroge la possibilité même de la « catastrophe naturelle » comme catégorie opératoire dans le contexte de la toute première modernité. En atteste une riche littérature de poésie dévotionnelle, de sermons, et de récits spirituels qui moralisent et spiritualisent l’orage, et à laquelle on pourra comparer, pour mieux les contraster, les lettres de Donne. « The Storm » et « The Calm » semblent se plier encore en partie à une lecture topique de l’orage comme expérience emblématique de l’épreuve et du chaos. Cependant, le fait que les deux poèmes se présentent explicitement sous la forme d’épîtres destinés à circuler à l’intérieur d’une société humaine (« the pre-eminence / of friendship »), qui tient lieu et place de la sphère d’action de la grâce divine (« impute to excellence »), contribue, avec l’analogie aux peintures sur le vif de Hilliard, à soustraire l’expérience météorologique à la sphère du surnaturel (ou du divin), où tout est signe d’un dessein téléologique, pour commencer à l’ancrer dans le monde des phénomènes naturels. Ainsi, les « lignes » du limner, comme celle du poète épistolaire, dessinent les contours d’un monde et d’une esthétique naturalisés, dans une tension renouvelée au super-naturel (au sens d’hyper-naturel) qui ne se présente plus tout à fait sous les mêmes traits allégoriques et divins.

Questions éventuelles

  • Rencontre-t-on d’autres exemples de mobilisation du vocabulaire pictural (et plus particulièrement de la terminologie associée au limning) dans les représentations poétiques/théâtrales de catastrophes naturelles?
  • Dans quelle mesure la tempête relève-t-elle des catégories de « catastrophe » et de « phénomène naturel » ?

Anne-Valérie Dulac (Sorbonne Université) et Anne-Marie Miller-Blaise (Sorbonne Nouvelle)

Bibliographie

  • Céline Cachaud, Hillyard and Co [carnet de recherche], https://hilliyarde.hypotheses.org/
  • Katherine Coombs, « A Kind of Gentle Painting », Kim Sloan (éd.), European Visions: American Voices, British Museum Research Publication, No. 172, 2009, p. 77-84
  • John Donne, The Satires, Epigrams, and Verse Letters, Wesley Milgate (éd.), Oxford, Clarendon, 1967.
  • John Donne, John Donne’s Poetry, Donald R. Dickson (éd.), New York, Norton, 2007.
  • John Donne, The Complete Poems, A. J. Smith (éd.), Londres, Penguin Classics, 1996 [1971].
  • Steve Mentz, « Donne at Sea: The Islands Voyage and Poetic Form », Forum for Modern Language Studies, Volume 49, No. 4, 1 octobre 2013, p. 355-368
  • B. F. Nellist, « Donne’s ‘Storm’ and ‘Calm’ and the Descriptive Tradition », The Modern Language Review, Vol. 59, No. 4, octobre 1964, p. 511-515
  • Anthony Parr, « John Donne, Travel Writer », Huntington Library Quarterly, vol. 70, No.1, mars 2007, p. 61-85
  • A. J. Smith (avec Catherine Philips), John Donne: The Critical Heritage, 2 volumes, Londres et New York, Routledge, 2005
  • Timea Tallian, « John White’s Materials and Techniques », Kim Sloan (éd.), European Visions: American Voices, British Museum Research Publications, No. 172, 2009, p. 72-76

In the Wake of Weather…

In the 18th century, the editing and the publication of the shipboard journals written during official Royal Navy expeditions were most often mandated by the Admiralty, although unauthorised, sometimes anonymous, accounts regularly appeared in print. These journals were then frequently translated into French, German, Italian, undergoing adaptation and reworking in the process. Journals were also kept on East Indiamen, or written during commercial voyages. Some of these were published, depending on how much heroics they contained. One of several reasons for this drive toward publication in the 18th century was that it constituted a means of publicising, and thus establishing and validating, imperial claims in the eyes of potential foreign competitors. Other more prosaic but prime, material considerations consisted in tapping into the enthusiasm of the educated public who made up the majority of the buyers of such publications, through subscription for example.

With the rise of theoretical interest in travel writing over the last fifty or so years, it is of course now widely recognised that these sources have proved extremely useful in deconstructing master narratives of discovery and the attending cultural monologues. For example, the pinpointing of the lacunae related to the texting of the recurrent violence of exploration, dispossession and colonisation progressively has to some extent dislocated prevailing histories of exploration like John Beaglehole’s The Exploration of the Pacific (1934). The histories of contact are retold and re-negotiated, thanks to these manuscripts and published journals.

The practice of science onboard ship was also refracted into the journals in terms for example of astronomical strategies deployed as aids to improving the navigators’ and navigational aptitude and scope. Maritime endeavour obviously contributed to the advancement of the sciences and arts in Enlightenment environments, and the shipboard journal was central in documenting that progress.

The documentary identity of a voyage was not only invested in journals, but also in logbooks, which were never published. Logs contained a wealth of data and hourly recorded the weather, temperature, wind direction and speed, distance travelled and position. Incidents or important events were also recorded in non narrative, note-like form. When material from the logs was integrated into the journals, it was adapted first by the author-navigator, but it was also considered by editors as “dry” and unpalatable. It was strategically eliminated from the published accounts, unless it had a degree of entertainment value. Thus, events like storms, hurricanes, water spouts, water fluorescence were considered as significant markers of narrative attractiveness and were worked into the print versions.

Clive Wilkinson et al[1] though are very clear on the research potential of such “indigestible” or ‘dry” contents of logs. They make a convincing case for a better understanding of the …the vastness and emptiness of the oceans which in fact improves historical insights into routes and times of sailings. We have argued elsewhere that elision of time and distance is a marked characteristic of journals and published accounts which derive from the former. Wilkinson also makes it clear that in areas such as medical history (relationship of climate variability and infectious disease) as well as environmental history, the study of logbooks can be of great value.

In addition to environment and medical history, Dennis Wheeler (in collaboration with Wilkinson) has suggested that climatology may be another potential beneficiary of logbook research.[2] Projects like  CLIWOC, RECLAIM have been based on accessing the mass of data which logbooks contain with this perspective in mind.

DISCUSSION POINTS

  • Within the framework of this seminar, would tracking, unpicking and comparing the methodologies of representations of extreme weather conditions at sea, firstly in logs, then in manuscript journals, and finally in edited volumes, contribute in meaningful ways to the above discussion in the field of climate studies?
  • Could examining shipboard iconography of cloud formations, storms, hurricanes, ice, volcanic eruptions (sketches, engravings, paintings, material culture) further inform climatological perspectives?
  • To what extent have French logbooks been integrated into the databases mentioned above? Would cataloguing and then examining the unpublished French archive constitute useful, comparative source material?

Sandhya Patel (Université Clermont Auvergne)


[1] See “The Non-Climatic Research Potential of Ships’ Logbooks and Journals”, Climatic Change, 73 (2005). 55-167.

[2] See Wheeler, Dennis & Garcia-Herrera, Ricardo, “Ships’ logbooks in Climatological Research”, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1146 (2009). 1-15. Wheeler, Dennis, Garcia-Herrera, Ricardo, Wilkinson, Clive & Ward, “Atmospheric circulation and storminess derived from Royal Navy logbooks. 1685-1750”, Climate Change, 101 (2010). 257-280.Pfeifer, Katrin, “On the Representation of an early Modern Dutch Storm in Two Poems. Culture Unbound”, Journal of Current Cultural Research, 7 (2015). 433-454.

“A Judgment upon the whole nation”: Why was The Great Fire of London in 1666 ignored by Restoration drama?

Within four days in September 1666, what was to be known as “the Great Fire of London” destroyed four fifths of the ancient commercial and topographic heart of London, quickly presented by King Charles II as “a judgment upon the whole nation” (my emphasis). As Cynthia Wall brilliantly showed, such physical and historical disaster entailed a wealth of “fire narratives” of all kinds and genres (royal proclamations, newspapers, sermons, poems), promoting a “rhetoric of loss” (Wall, 3) together with a view to resemiotize a now “signless” London (John Evelyn). However, one particular genre and space, drama, one of the dominant genres of the time, remained conspicuously aloof from such narratives of loss. Most of what the Restoration theatre produced in the immediate aftermath of and several years after the Fire hardly ever made so much as a passing reference to the event. One of the possible explanations for such emphatic silence might be that the theatrical world was located outside the ruined City, topographically and conceptually (Wall, 149). The aim of this paper is to interrogate further why Restoration drama, especially comedies –despite their usual countless topical references– gave the Great Fire of London the silent treatment, effectively placing the theatrical world out of the ashes and the rebuilding process that followed, but also, to a certain extent, beside the rest of the nation.

Denis Lagae-Devoldère (Sorbonne Université)

Bibliography

Primary sources

  •  Aubrey, John. Brief Lives, ed. Richard Barber (Woodbridge, Suffolk, The Boydell Press, 1982)
  • Evelyn, John. The Diary of John Evelyn, ed. E. S. De Beer (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1938)
  • Ford, Simon. The Conflagration of London Poetically delineated (1667)
  • Pepys, Samuel. The Diary of Samuel Pepys, ed. Robert Latham and William Matthews (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1972)
  • Shadwell, Thomas. A Short and Serious Narrative of Londons Fatal Fire (1667)
  • A Proclamation for a General Fast through England and Wales (October 10, 1666)

Secondary sources

  • Bell, Walter George. The Great Fire of London in 1666 (London, The Bodley Head, 1920)
  • Barton, Anne. “London Comedy and the Ethos of the City.” The London Journal 4:2 (1978)
  • Barton, Anne. “Parks and Ardens.” Proceedings of the British Academy 80 (1993)
  • Wall, Cynthia. The Literary and Cultural Spaces of Restoration London (CUP, 1998)
  • Wells, Susan. “Jacobean City Comedy and the Ideology of the City.” ELH 48:1 (1981)

“STRANGE and DREADFUL News” – événements climatiques et catastrophes naturelles dans les ballades anglaises

Mon projet est de confronter les récits de catastrophes naturelles ou climatiques relatées par des Broadside Ballads, ces feuilles volantes à bas prix  à leur traitement des événements politiques ou monstrueux dont on sait cette littérature friande. Je m’efforcerai d’analyser quels effets rhétoriques sont convoqués pour agrandir ou au contraire simplement essayer de rendre compte de ces événements hors du commun et que peu de témoins oculaires peuvent effectivement relater.

On discerne 3 types de ballade en rapport avec les catastrophes naturelles :

1.Les chansons entièrement consacrées au récit d’un événement exceptionnel, tempête, inondation, tremblement de terre, éruption volcanique, orage de grêle, épidémie (a vérifier), incendie causé par le vent etc

2.Les allusions à de tels événements dans des chansons traitant de sujets divers et en particulier les chansons de marins qui font fréquemment allusion aux tempêtes.

3.Les prophéties ou contes moraux qui mettent parfois en jeu le répertoire complet des catastrophes possibles, comme dans « Calebbe Shillocke, his Prophesie: or, the Jewes Prediction. » (EBBA 20024), une ballade de 1607, ou « AN ELEGY ON Mrs. ALICIA LISLE. Which for High-Treason was Beheaded at Winchester » (EBBA 33058), une ode funèbre de 1685 qui invoque orages et ouragans pour mieux instruire l’auditeur.

Le répertoire britannique semble relativement pauvre en ballades dédiées à des événements exceptionnels, alors même que l’on s’est habitué à attribuer à ces feuilles volantes un intérêt majeur pour ces épisodes sensationnels. Le projet de cette communication sera de continuer l’exploration de la base de données EBBA pour affiner ce cadre analytique, puis de se concentrer sur les chansons les plus significatives pour les mettre en rapport d’une part avec la littérature équivalente sur le continent (nombre d’entre les événements décrits ayant eu lieu en dehors de la Grande-Bretagne) et d’autre part avec les comptes-rendus qu’en auront proposé des auteurs travaillant dans des champs différents : récits de voyage, textes scientifiques, textes poétiques.

Chantal Schütz (Ecole Polytechnique / Université Paris 3 – EA Prismes)

Bibliographie

Sources primaires

  • Ballads and Broadsides in Britain, 1500-1800, ed. by Patricia Fumerton and Anita Guerrini (Surrey: Ashgate Publishing, 2010).
  • Broadside ballads from the Pepys collection : a selection of texts, approaches, and recordings, edited by Patricia Fumerton (Tempe, Ariz. : Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2012).
  • Broadside Ballads Online, Bodleian Libraries, http://ballads.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/
  • Broadside Blackletter Ballads Printed in the Seventeenth Century, ed. by John P. Collier (London: Thomas Richards, 1868).
  • Catalogue of English and American Chap-books and Broadside Ballads in Harvard College Library, ed. by William Coolidge Lane (Cambridge, Mass.: The Harvard College Library, 1905).
  • Choyce Drollery: Songs and Sonnets (London: Robert Pollard and John Sweeting, 1656), in EEBO <http://eebo.chadwyck.com/home> [accesses 23 January 2013] Choyce Drollery: Songs and Sonnets, ed. J.W. Ebsworth (Boston, Lincolnshire: n.p., 1876).
  • Hyder Rollins, An Analytical Index to the Ballad Entries (1557-1709) in the Registers of the Company of Stationers of London, 2nd edn (Hatboro: Tradition Press, 1967).
  • More Sea Songs & Ballads, ed. by Cicely Fox Smith (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1926).
  • The English and Scottish Popular Ballads, ed. by Francis James Child, 10 vols (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1882-98).
  • The English Broadside Ballad Archive, Director: Patricia Fumerton, University of California, Santa Barbara http://ebba.english.ucsb.edu
  • The Roxburghe Ballads, ed. by William Chappell and others, 9 vols (Hertford: The Ballad Society, 1871-97).
  • William Chappell, Popular Music of the Olden Time, 2 vols (London: Cramer, Beale and Chappell, 1859).

Sources secondaires

  • Buchan, David, The Ballad and the Folk (East Lothian: Tuckwell Press, 1997).
  • Burke, Peter, Popular Culture in Early Modern Europe, 3rd edn (Surrey: Ashgate, 2009).
  • Duffin, Ross, Shakespeare’s Songbook (New York: Norton, 2004).
  • Faber, Paul Lewis, Popular Song In Early Modern Drama 1580-1620, Dissertation, Leeds, 2013.
  • Fox, Adam, Oral and Literate Culture in England 1500-1700 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000).
  • Lindley, David, Shakespeare and Music (London: Arden Shakespeare, 2006).
  • McShane, Angela, ed., ‘Political Broadside Ballads of Seventeenth Century England: A Critical Bibliography’, London: Pickering and Chatto, 2011.
  • Marsh, Christopher, Music and Society in Early Modern England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).
  • Reay, Barry, Popular Cultures in England 1550-1750 (Harlow: Addison Wesley Longman, 1998).
  • Rollins, Hyder, An Analytical Index to the Ballad Entries (1557-1709) in the Registers of the Company of Stationers of London, 2nd edn (Hatboro: Tradition Press, 1967).
  • ––––– ‘The Blackletter Broadside Ballad’, PMLA, 34.2 (1919), 258-339.
  • ––––– ‘The Date and Authors and Contents of A Handful of Pleasant Delights’, in The
  • Journal of English and Germanic Philology, 18.1 (1919), 1-17.
  • ––––– ‘William Elderton, Elizabethan Actor and Ballad-Writer’, Studies in Philology, 17.2 (1920), 199-245.
  • Simpson, Claude M., The British Broadside Ballad and Its Music (New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1966).
  • Watt, Tessa, Cheap Print and Popular Piety (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).

 

Annexe : Ballads about natural disasters [télécharger l’annexe]

Date Title Catalog Type of event
1586 A briefe sonet declaring the lamentation of Beckles, a Market Towne in Suffolke which was in the great winde upon Saint Andrewes eve pitifully burned with fire EBBA 32522

https://ebba.english.ucsb.edu/ballad/32522/citation

Wind and fire
1661 Newes from Hereford, or, A wonderful and terrible earthquake: vvith a wonderful thunderclap,

that happened on Tuesday being the first of October,

1661.

BBO  V3081

http://ballads.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/view/edition/18706

Earthquake
1669 Mount AEtna’s Flames. OR, The Sicilian Wonder EEBO http://name.umdl.umich.edu/a51513.0001.001 Eruption
1671 A Description of a Great Sea-Storm,

That happened to some Ships in the Gulph of FLORIDA

EBBA 32167

https://ebba.english.ucsb.edu/ballad/32167/citation

Storm at sea
1680 A Ballad of the Strange and Wonderful Storm of Hail, Which fell in LONDON on the 18th. of May 1680 EBBA 20757

https://ebba.english.ucsb.edu/ballad/20757/citation

Storm of Hail
1684 The Benjamin’s Lamentation for their sad
Loss at Sea, by Storms and Tempests
EBBA 21862

https://ebba.english.ucsb.edu/ballad/21862/citation

Storm at sea
1684 Sad News from Salisbury,
And other Parts of the West of ENGLAND
EBBA 31877

https://ebba.english.ucsb.edu/ballad/31877/citation

Frost and snow
1686 STRANGE and DREADFUL News from Holland;
OR, The Sad and Lamentable Account of a Fearful STORM
EBBA 20756

https://ebba.english.ucsb.edu/ballad/20756/citation

Storm and floods

Ballads mentioning storms etc

1664-1688

 

The Jovial Marriner;
OR, The Sea-mans Renown.
EBBA 32976

https://ebba.english.ucsb.edu/ballad/32976/citation

Storms at sea
1714-1724 NEPTUNE’s Raging FURY.

OR, The Gallant Seaman’s SUFFERINGS.

EBBA 33926

http://ebba.english.ucsb.edu/ballad/33926/citation

storms at sea
1678-1680 The Worlds Wonder.
Giving an Account of Two Old Men, Lately known and seen in the City of Tholouze in France
EBBA 31031

https://ebba.english.ucsb.edu/ballad/31031/citation

Prophecies of doom
1607? Calebbe Shillocke, his Prophesie:  or, the Jewes Prediction. To the tune of Bragandarie. EBBA 20024 Prophecies of doom
1692 Strange and Wonderful News from ROME: EBBA 31787 Prophecy of an earthquake (in 1702)
1685 AN ELEGY ON Mrs. ALICIA LISLE. Which for High-Treason was Beheaded at Winchester EBBA 33058

 

Disasters one should fear or not fear
1821 THE Kentish Tragedy; OR, EDWARD AND HANNAH. AN AFFECTING TALE. EBBA 33104 Hurricane

Anomalies climatiques et considérations eschatologiques dans A Godly and Fruitful Sermon Preached at Grantham, Anno. Dom. 1592 (1595) de Francis Trigge

Dans un passage de son sermon, Trigge (c. 1540 – 1606), pasteur de Welbourne dans le Lincolnshire, observe : « Strangeness of eclypses,  and the multitude of them in our dayes […] and the two eclypses of the sonne which shall be seene this yeare […], the inflammations of the aire and the raging of the seas,  the unseasonable sommers and the miraculous floodes which wee have had, […] surely these are signs of this his [Christ’s] comming ».

Je propose d’explorer la manière dont ces observations de Trigge sur des anomalies climatiques font écho à des développements sur le thème du mundus senescit et à des rappels de passages prophétiques de la Bible et s’intègrent à un constat de la dégénérescence morale et spirituelle de la société de son temps. En effet, Trigge ouvre son sermon par une citation des 3 premiers versets du chapitre 24 d’Isaïe, évoquant la dévastation de la terre par l’Eternel[1], et son propos est d’exhorter ses auditeurs à réformer leur vie, non seulement en leur rappelant l’inéluctabilité de la rétribution divine, mais en en suggérant l’imminence. Cette perspective fait l’objet de nombreuses mentions dans le sermon qui s’inscrit ainsi dans ce que l’on identifie comme « l’apocalyptique Tudor », dans la lignée de John Bale et de George Joye, les turpitudes humaines comme les phénomènes climatiques inquiétants étant présentés comme autant de signes que la fin des temps est proche.

Monique Vénuat (Université Clermont Auvergne)

 Bibliographie

Sources primaires

  • BALE, John. The Image of Both Churches, Being an exposition of the most wonderful book of REVELATION of St John the Evangelist; The Select Works of John Bale, ed. Parker Society, Cambridge 1849.
  • JOYE, George.  The Conjectures of the ende of the Worlde and of that godly and learned man, Andrew Osiander (Anvers, in-8, 1548); The Conjectures of the ende of the Worlde by A. Osiander translated by Ge. Joye with many things by him added (London, 1548); The Conjectures of the ende of the Worlde (gathered out of Scripture by A. Oseander (in-8, Genève ? 1548) (British Library C.124.dd.34). Version électronique disponible sur EEBO.
  • TRIGGE, Francis: A Godly and Fruitful Sermon Preached at Grantham, (Oxford, 1595); éd. M. Couton, I. Fernandes, C. Jérémie, M. Vénuat, Coll. CERHAC, PUBP, Clermont-Ferrand, 2013.

Sources secondaires

  • BACKUS, Irena D. Reformation Readings of the Apocalypse, Geneva, Zurich, and Wittenberg. Oxford, 2000.
  • FIRTH, Katherine. The Apocalyptic Tradition in Reformation Britain: 1530-1645, Oxford, 1979.
  • FOESSEL, Michaël. Après la fin du monde Critique de la raison apocalyptique, Paris, Seuil, 2012.
  • WABUDA, Susan. Preaching during the English Reformation, CUP, Cambridge, 2002.

[1] Isaiah 24 : 1,2,3. “1 Behold, the Lord maketh the earth empty, and maketh it waste, and turneth it upside down, and scattereth abroad the inhabitants thereof. 2 And it shall be, as with the people, so with the priest; as with the servant, so with his master; as with the maid, so with her mistress; as with the buyer, so with the seller; as with the lender, so with the borrower; as with the taker of usury, so with the giver of usury to him. 3 The land shall be utterly emptied, and utterly spoiled: for the LORD hath spoken this word.” (King James Bible)

 

 

 

Bibliographie

Francis Trigge,  A Godly and Fruitful Sermon Preached at Grantham, Londres, 1595.